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Instrumental and biological analyses for the man

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Basic Analyses

  • hormonal analysis. This consists of the search, in the blood, for the hormones  that regulate the principal functions of the glands (testicles and pituitary gland) that regulate male reproductivity.
  • spermiogram (with spermioculture). A fundamental test for the evaluation of male fertility.  It is the observation of the characteristics of the seminal liquid via the examination of a small quantity of said under a microscope.  It serves to evaluate if the number of the spermatozoa in the ejaculate is normal, if their movement is adequate and if they have a normal form.  The reliability is good only if the test is carried out in a laboratory or by a competent specialist.

The normal values of a spermiogram should be at least:

Concentration:  20 Million per Millilitre

Progressive and fast Motility: 30%

Normal Morphology: 50%

These values, however, are only indicative.  Fertilisation has been achieved using seminal liquid with much lower values than these.  On the other hand there is no test in existence that is capable of prediction by 100% if a given sample of seminal liquid is fertile.

Spermioculture.  Is the research for germs in the seminal liquid.  It is used to determine if there is a present infection of the genital organs.

Other tests

  • anti-spermatozoa antibodies.  These are substances produced by the organism of the woman or man against the spermatozoa.  These antibodies can be found in the blood of both partners, in the seminal liquid and, in the woman, in the cervical mucus. There are many tests that can be performed on these antibodies.  The most simple is the mar-test that is performed on the seminal liquid.
  • ecodoppler.  Is a test which is performed using an instrument that measures the influx of blood near the testicles;  it is used to determine if the blood influx is normal or if it is poor.  If it is poor (in certain cases the direction of the blood flow is even inverted) very often varicoceles are found.  The test is painless, the reliability is good and there are no risks
  • HIV (human immuno deficiency virus), VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratories) and TPHA (Treponema Pallidum Hemaglutination Test) two analyses for the study of the bacteria that causes syphilis
  • Spermatozoa maturity test (Sperm-Hyaluronan Binding Assay)
    This test is based on the mature spermatozoa’s capacity to attach themselves to hyaluronic acid, as opposed to immature spermatozoa which are not able to do this. This test is used to determine the percentage of spermatozoa that are mature and physiologically normal in the sample considered.  The presence of 80% spermatozoa attached indicates the normality of the sample:  way below 80% indicates diminished maturity.
  • Spermatozoa DNA fragmentation test
    The normal structure of the cromatine of the spermatozoa is an indispensable characteristic for the correct transmission of the paternal genetic material and for the good functionality of the spermatozoon.  The increase in DNA fragmentation of the spermatozoa is a major cause of male infertility because it decreases the fertilisation percentage both naturally and in vitro.  It is estimated that in the presence of a DNA fragmentation index of 30% it is wise to enter into an Assisted Reproduction programme choosing the ICSI technique,  which in these cases seems to give the best results.
  • Sperm Aneuploidy
    This test, which is always performed on the seminal liquid, serves to evaluate if the chromosomes present in the spermatozoon are in their normal number, or if some of theme are missing or over numbered.  It is requested, especially, in the presence of poly-abortivity in the couple, since spermatozoa carrying the numeric abnormality of the chromosomes can, and succeed in fertilisation but cause abortive problems.

lunedì 30 marzo 2009

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